Does VFX Require Coding Skills?

Izaan Ishaq
Izaan Ishaq
November 11, 2023
Updated on
December 10, 2023

In the world of visual effects (VFX), a common question that arises is, does VFX require coding?” The simple answer is that coding varies depending on the specific job within the VFX industry. While some roles may not demand coding skills, having a grasp of programming can be a significant asset.

Think about common movie effects, such as the transformation of water into ice, which we can see in movies like ‘Frozen’. Do VFX artists typically create these effects directly using software tools or capture them on camera for later manipulation? In reality, these effects are often procedurally generated using mathematical formulas that simulate physics. Computers play a crucial role in processing these simulations. Tools like SideFX Houdini are essential in this process, as they provide a platform to write code, like the VEX coding language, to generate and control a wide range of effects, including manipulating water into ice.

But what exactly is VFX and how does it work?

What is VFX?

VFX refers to the process of creating or manipulating imagery outside the confines of live-action shots. It’s a key element in movies, television, video games, and virtual reality, allowing for the creation of environments, characters, or effects that are impractical or impossible to capture on film.

Some examples of common VFX techniques include:

  • Green screen compositing – integrating CGI elements into live-action backgrounds
  • Motion capture – recording movements of actors to animate digital characters
  • Matte painting – creating expansive backgrounds or settings
  • Particle effects – sparks, smoke, fire, pixie dust
  • 3D animation – complex CGI characters or props
  • Crowd replication – populating scenes with CGI crowds
  • Set extensions – expanding limited real sets with digital builds

Does VFX require Coding?

To understand the role of coding in VFX, we must look at the different aspects of VFX production where coding is crucial. If you are thinking can I learn VFX without coding? The answer is yes as it’s not a universal requirement in learning VFX, but it offers a competitive edge in many areas. It enhances creative possibilities and streamlines workflow efficiency, making it a valuable skill in the VFX toolkit.

The VFX pipeline typically involves both artistic skill and technical mastery. While the artistic skills are focused on bringing creative visions to life visually, the coding and programming side is what enables these visions to be executed at the level audiences expect in today’s blockbuster films and shows.

VFX Require Coding for CGI simulations

Some within the VFX industry can focus purely on the artistic side, like concept artists, modelers or animators. But those looking to specialize in the more technical areas like rigging, simulations, rendering, and pipeline development will find coding ability is vital to excel in these roles.

Even for the less technical positions, having some scripting knowledge helps artists work smarter and faster by automating repetitive tasks. So, while not mandatory across all VFX jobs, coding can give that competitive advantage to stand out.

The VFX Pipeline: Where Coding Comes Into Play

The VFX pipeline is a multi-stage process involving various tasks from concept to final output. Here’s a deeper look at how coding integrates into the key stages of this pipeline:

Pre-Production Planning

The initial stage of any VFX project involves extensive planning and conceptualization. The director and VFX supervisors map out the overall approach and style for the required effects. Concept artists generate visual references to establish the look.

While coding isn’t directly used in pre-production, any pre-visualization done at this stage can involve some scripting and coding. Pre-vis, involving rough CGI mockups of effects, gives an early idea of complex VFX shots before full production begins. The pre-vis software used may need coding modifications to achieve specific simulated effects or scene events planned by the director.

Asset Creation

Once the concepts and pre-visualization are approved, the next critical phase is asset creation. This is where all the core digital components like characters, environments, props, and effects are created using specialized VFX software such as Autodesk Maya, Foundry’s Modo, SideFX Houdini, Maxon Cinema4D, or Blender.

Modelers build the 3D objects and surfaces that will populate the virtual world. Texture artists add color, patterns, and surface properties that define the look and feel. This stage is primarily artistic but can require some scripting for more complex procedural techniques.

For example, terrain generation for vast natural environments is often done procedurally using node-based scripting in software like Houdini rather than manual modeling. The artists define a set of rules and parameters while the procedural system automatically generates extremely detailed terrain down to each pebble and blade of grass.

Code written for feather generator in VEX by Jakub Vondra on

Rigging and Simulations

With the models built, technical artists rig the characters, props, and elements needed for movement and animation. Rigging involves building a virtual skeleton with joints and controls that animators can manipulate to pose models and bring them to life. More realism calls for more advanced rigging mechanisms enabled by coding.

Simulations refer to replicating physical properties and dynamics like cloth, hair, fire, smoke, water effects, and other interactions between CGI elements. Dedicated simulation TDs (technical directors) develop complex simulation rule sets and use programming languages like VEX in Houdini and Python in Maya to create increasingly realistic physics and movement.


With rigged characters and objects ready, the animation process breathes life and motion into each shot. Animation does not strictly require coding but can be enhanced by scripting tools that help automate certain repetitive tasks.

For example, walk cycle or facial expression generators powered by machine learning can provide animators with a baseline motion they can fine-tune rather than starting from scratch each time. This allows more rapid iteration and better continuity for things like background crowds where detail matters less.

Lighting and Rendering

After the animation, lighting artists sculpt the desired mood, atmosphere, and visual style for each shot by digitally placing and tuning lights on the 3D objects. This stage is crucial in establishing the final look before rendering converts the lit 3D scene into 2D images and video.

The rendering process is extremely computationally intensive, relying heavily on coding techniques like raytracing, physically-based rendering, and global illumination algorithms. Render engineers must optimize scene data and leverage complex software like Pixar’s RenderMan to efficiently generate high-quality output, often requiring hours per frame for complex set-ups.


The final step in the VFX pipeline is compositing, where all the rendered elements come together to form the completed shots. VFX artists composite or “stack” layers like the CGI components, live-action footage, color corrections, and visual effects using software like Nuke, After Effects, or Fusion.

Compositors often create templates and scripts to automate repetitive but essential tasks like rotoscoping, debris clean-up, beauty work, and other shot enhancements. Custom expressions also help composite intricate effects more efficiently.

Coding in Action: Real-World VFX Examples

Let’s look at some real-world examples of how customized coding solutions enabled breathtaking visual effects sequences in popular films:

Coding CELL DIVISION inside Houdini

In this YouTube video tutorial, Tom Cowles shares how to create a cell division animation including mitosis using coding in Houdini. They begin by explaining the process, which involves using a point generator for the original cell, adding a point jitter for randomization, and creating a solver with an attribute wrangle to move points based on an algorithm.

Houdini Cell Division using Coding

The tutorial covers assigning an age to cells, creating a visual representation, and rendering the animation. The tutorial provides a detailed guide to achieving a cellular division animation in Houdini through coding.

Pixar’s PantaRay for Cloth Simulation

For “The Incredibles“, Pixar developed a proprietary cloth simulation engine called PantaRay. It allowed animators to achieve new levels of realism, motion, and interaction for the superhero costumes designed to flex and stretch dramatically during action scenes. This exemplified how low-level C/C++ coding could be leveraged to create incredibly lifelike and dynamic cloth effects.

Weta Digital’s Massive for AI Crowd Simulation

In the epic battle sequences of “The Lord of the Rings,” innovative AI coding in Weta’s Massive software enabled autonomous behavior and interactions for up to 200,000 virtual actors at once. It exemplifies how advanced procedural generation powered by coding delivered the scale, complexity, and realism needed for such grand fantasy warfare.

Disney’s Fluid Simulations in “Frozen”

The fluid effects like spraying ocean waves and snow particle effects in movies like “Frozen” and “Moana” demonstrated Disney’s mastery of fluid dynamics. By coding customized solvers for smoke, liquid, and snow in their in-house tools, they achieved incredible real-world accuracy in animating water, mist, and icy environments.

Day For Nite’s Marvin AI for Automated Rotoscoping

For the gritty street scenes full of glowing neon signs in Netflix’s “The Defenders”, Day For Nite VFX developed an AI tool named Marvin. This tool automated the rotoscoping process, a testament to how coding and machine learning are enabling automation for manual VFX tasks.

Expanding Career Opportunities with Coding in VFX

Learning to code opens up an array of career paths in the VFX industry beyond just artistic roles. Some examples of coding-focused VFX jobs include:

  • Technical Directors/Pipeline TDs: They ensure that the VFX pipeline runs smoothly, developing scripts and tools to optimize workflow efficiency. Knowledge of common VFX software APIs allows greater control through customization.
  • Rigging TDs: Specialists in creating advanced character and object rigs for animators. They use coding languages like Python and MATLAB to implement skeletal systems and movement mechanics like inverse/forward kinematics.
  • Simulation TDs: Focus on replicating physical interactions between CGI elements like cloth, liquid, fire, smoke, crowds etc. They code solvers, constraints and dynamic interactions in Houdini using VEX, Python and C++.
  • Rendering Engineers: They tap into advanced C++ skills to optimize scene data management, leverage complex rendering toolkits like RenderMan, and enhance algorithms like ray tracing for efficient, high-fidelity image output.
  • R&D Engineers: These professionals push boundaries by researching and developing new VFX technologies in code like machine learning pipelines. They may publish and implement academic papers as production-ready tools.
  • Pipeline Developers: They design and build custom production management systems and asset-tracking workflow solutions for VFX studios using languages like Python, C# and web frameworks like React.

For those looking to specialize on the coding side rather than as digital artists, VFX technical roles offer a chance to work on cutting-edge, highly complex software engineering problems. The projects and challenges are wholly unique to the entertainment industry as well.

Conclusion: Coding as the Unseen Hero in CGI

In summary, code plays a vital and often unseen role in empowering modern VFX to push the boundaries of photorealism and take audiences’ breath away. While the talented digital artists and animators rightly deserve immense appreciation, the coders working behind the scenes also deserve credit for building incredible tools and frameworks enabling today’s visual effects masterpieces. For those looking to join the VFX industry, having some level of coding proficiency will offer a competitive edge and open doors to participate in more aspects of the VFX creative pipeline.

is working in VFX really that bad
Is Working in VFX really that bad?
Updated on
The domain of Visual Effects (VFX) often grabs attention for its amazing work in movies, ads, and TV. But if you’re thinking about a job…